Benedita Kaç Labbé Feron and Simon Clifford Wainwright Richardson* Pages 79 - 88 ( 10 )
Introduction: The design of advanced drug delivery systems based on synthetic and supramolecular chemistry has been very successful. Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx®), and liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome®), estradiol topical emulsion (EstrasorbTM) as well as soluble or erodible polymer systems such as pegaspargase (Oncaspar®) or goserelin acetate (Zoladex®) represent considerable achievements.
Discussion: As deliverables have evolved from low molecular weight drugs to biologics (currently representing approximately 30% of the market), so too have the demands made of advanced drug delivery technology. In parallel, the field of membrane trafficking (and endocytosis) has also matured. The trafficking of specific receptors i.e. material to be recycled or destroyed, as well as the trafficking of protein toxins has been well characterized. This, in conjunction with an ability to engineer synthetic, recombinant proteins provides several possibilities.
Conclusion: The first is using recombinant proteins as drugs i.e. denileukin diftitox (Ontak®) or agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme®). The second is the opportunity to use protein toxin architecture to reach targets that are not normally accessible. This may be achieved by grafting regulatory domains from multiple species to form synthetic proteins, engineered to do multiple jobs. Examples include access to the nucleocytosolic compartment. Herein, the use of synthetic proteins for drug delivery has been reviewed.
Protein toxin, endomembrane, exosome, endocytosis, drug delivery, siRNA, antisense.
Exogenix Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, Exogenix Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB